109 items tagged “openai”
Example of OpenAI function calling API to extract data from LAPD newsroom articles (via) Fascinating code example from Kyle McDonald. The OpenAI functions mechanism is intended to drive custom function calls, but I hadn’t quite appreciated how useful it can be ignoring the function calls entirely. Kyle instead uses it to define a schema for data he wants to extract from a news article, then uses the gpt-3.5-turbo-0613 to get back that exact set of extracted data as JSON. # 14th June 2023, 8:57 pm
Emergency Pod: OpenAI’s new Functions API, 75% Price Drop, 4x Context Length (via) I participated in a Twitter Spaces conversation last night about the new OpenAI functions mechanism. The recording has now been turned into a Latent Space podcast, and swyx has accompanied the recording with a detailed write-up of the different topics we covered. # 14th June 2023, 7:23 pm
OpenAI: Function calling and other API updates. Huge set of announcements from OpenAI today. A bunch of price reductions, but the things that most excite me are the new gpt-3.5-turbo-16k model which offers a 16,000 token context limit (4x the existing 3.5 turbo model) at a price of $0.003 per 1K input tokens and $0.004 per 1K output tokens—1/10th the price of GPT-4 8k.
The other big new feature: functions! You can now send JSON schema defining one or more functions to GPT 3.5 and GPT-4—those models will then return a blob of JSON describing a function they want you to call (if they determine that one should be called). Your code executes the function and passes the results back to the model to continue the execution flow.
This is effectively an implementation of the ReAct pattern, with models that have been fine-tuned to execute it.
They acknowledge the risk of prompt injection (though not by name) in the post: “We are working to mitigate these and other risks. Developers can protect their applications by only consuming information from trusted tools and by including user confirmation steps before performing actions with real-world impact, such as sending an email, posting online, or making a purchase.” # 13th June 2023, 5:34 pm
simpleaichat (via) Max Woolf released his own Python package for building against the GPT-3.5 and GPT-4 APIs (and potentially other LLMs in the future).
It’s a very clean piece of API design with some useful additional features: there’s an AsyncAIChat subclass that works with Python asyncio, and the library includes a mechanism for registering custom functions that can then be called by the LLM as tools.
One trick I haven’t seen before: it uses a combination of max_tokens: 1 and a ChatGPT logit_bias to ensure that answers to one of its default prompts are restricted to just numerals between 0 and 9. This is described in the PROMPTS.md file. # 8th June 2023, 9:06 pm
Large language models such as GPT-3/4, LLaMA and PaLM work in terms of tokens. They take text, convert it into tokens (integers), then predict which tokens should come next.[... 1570 words]
Examples of weird GPT-4 behavior for the string “ davidjl”. GPT-4, when told to repeat or otherwise process the string “ davidjl” (note the leading space character), treats it as “jndl” or “jspb” or “JDL” instead. It turns out “ davidjl” has its own single token in the tokenizer: token ID 23282, presumably dating back to the GPT-2 days.
Riley Goodside refers to these as “glitch tokens”.
This token might refer to Reddit user davidjl123 who ranks top of the league for the old /r/counting subreddit, with 163,477 posts there which presumably ended up in older training data. # 8th June 2023, 9:29 am
ChatGPT Plugins Don’t Have PMF. Sam Altman was recently quoted (in a since unpublished blog post) noting that ChatGPT plugins have not yet demonstrated product market fit.
This matches my own usage patterns: I use the “browse” and “code interpreter” modes on a daily basis, but I’ve not found any of the third party developer plugins to stick for me yet.
I like Matt Rickard’s observation here: “Chat is not the right UX for plugins. If you know what you want to do, it’s often easier to just do a few clicks on the website. If you don’t, just a chat interface makes it hard to steer the model toward your goal.” # 8th June 2023, 4:59 am
Logan Kilpatrick (OpenAI). “The API does not just change without us telling you. The models are static there.”
That’s the official line on the ongoing questions concerning whether OpenAI’s models have been degrading in quality over the last few weeks and months.
Worth noting that this mentions the API but doesn’t mention ChatGPT itself, which I suspect gets model updates a lot more frequently than the models served through the API. # 5th June 2023, 3:49 pm
One of the most common concerns I see about large language models regards their training data. People are worried that anything they say to ChatGPT could be memorized by it and spat out to other users. People are concerned that anything they store in a private repository on GitHub might be used as training data for future versions of Copilot.[... 1465 words]
In OpenAI isn’t doing enough to make ChatGPT’s limitations clear James Vincent argues that OpenAI’s existing warnings about ChatGPT’s confounding ability to convincingly make stuff up are not effective.[... 1488 words]
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A whole new paradigm would be needed to solve prompt injections 10/10 times – It may well be that LLMs can never be used for certain purposes. We’re working on some new approaches, and it looks like synthetic data will be a key element in preventing prompt injections.
Let ChatGPT visit a website and have your email stolen. Johann Rehberger provides a screenshot of the first working proof of concept I’ve seen of a prompt injection attack against ChatGPT Plugins that demonstrates exfiltration of private data. He uses the WebPilot plugin to retrieve a web page containing an injection attack, which triggers the Zapier plugin to retrieve latest emails from Gmail, then exfiltrate the data by sending it to a URL with another WebPilot call.
Johann hasn’t shared the prompt injection attack itself, but the output from ChatGPT gives a good indication as to what happened:
“Now, let’s proceed to the next steps as per the instructions. First, I will find the latest email and summarize it in 20 words. Then, I will encode the result and append it to a specific URL, and finally, access and load the resulting URL.” # 19th May 2023, 3:34 pm
I’ve been building out a small suite of command-line tools for working with ChatGPT, GPT-4 and potentially other language models in the future.[... 1317 words]
Prompt injection remains an unsolved problem. The best we can do at the moment, disappointingly, is to raise awareness of the issue. As I pointed out last week, “if you don’t understand it, you are doomed to implement it.”[... 1010 words]
Language models can explain neurons in language models (via) Fascinating interactive paper by OpenAI, describing how they used GPT-4 to analyze the concepts tracked by individual neurons in their much older GPT-2 model. “We generated cluster labels by embedding each neuron explanation using the OpenAI Embeddings API, then clustering them and asking GPT-4 to label each cluster.” # 9th May 2023, 5:35 pm
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I shipped openai-to-sqlite 0.3 yesterday with a fun new feature: you can now use the command-line tool to enrich data in a SQLite database by running values through an OpenAI model and saving the results, all in a single SQL query.[... 1219 words]
GPT-3 token encoder and decoder. I built an Observable notebook with an interface to encode, decode and search through GPT-3 tokens, building on top of a notebook by EJ Fox and Ian Johnson. # 27th April 2023, 11:48 pm
Latest Twitter search results for “as an AI language model” (via) Searching for “as an AI language model” on Twitter reveals hundreds of bot accounts which are clearly being driven by GPT models and have been asked to generate content which occasionally trips the ethical guidelines trained into the OpenAI models.
If Twitter still had an affordable search API someone could do some incredible disinformation research on top of this, looking at which accounts are implicated, what kinds of things they are tweeting about, who they follow and retweet and so-on. # 17th April 2023, 2:28 pm
Although fine-tuning can feel like the more natural option—training on data is how GPT learned all of its other knowledge, after all—we generally do not recommend it as a way to teach the model knowledge. Fine-tuning is better suited to teaching specialized tasks or styles, and is less reliable for factual recall. [...] In contrast, message inputs are like short-term memory. When you insert knowledge into a message, it’s like taking an exam with open notes. With notes in hand, the model is more likely to arrive at correct answers.
One way to avoid unspotted prediction errors is for the technology in its current state to have early and frequent contact with reality as it is iteratively developed, tested, deployed, and all the while improved. And there are creative ideas people don’t often discuss which can improve the safety landscape in surprising ways — for example, it’s easy to create a continuum of incrementally-better AIs (such as by deploying subsequent checkpoints of a given training run), which presents a safety opportunity very unlike our historical approach of infrequent major model upgrades.
Activity around building sophisticated applications on top of LLMs (Large Language Models) such as GPT-3/4/ChatGPT/etc is growing like wildfire right now.[... 2302 words]
The Great Flowering: Why OpenAI is the new AWS and the New Kingmakers still matter (via) James Governor discusses the potential impact of AI-assisted productivity on the wider software engineering industry, and calls me “a bellwether”! # 13th April 2023, 7:20 pm
Before we scramble to deeply integrate LLMs everywhere in the economy, can we pause and think whether it is wise to do so?
This is quite immature technology and we don’t understand how it works.
If we’re not careful we’re setting ourselves up for a lot of correlated failures.
This morning, VentureBeat published a story by Sharon Goldman: With a wave of new LLMs, open source AI is having a moment — and a red-hot debate. It covers the explosion in activity around openly available Large Language Models such as LLaMA—a trend I’ve been tracking in my own series LLMs on personal devices—and talks about their implications with respect to AI safety.[... 781 words]
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ChatGPT lies to people. This is a serious bug that has so far resisted all attempts at a fix. We need to prioritize helping people understand this, not debating the most precise terminology to use to describe it.[... 1174 words]
Closed AI Models Make Bad Baselines (via) The NLP academic research community are facing a tough challenge: the state-of-the-art in large language models, GPT-4, is entirely closed which means papers that compare it to other models lack replicability and credibility. “We make the case that as far as research and scientific publications are concerned, the “closed” models (as defined below) cannot be meaningfully studied, and they should not become a “universal baseline”, the way BERT was for some time widely considered to be.”
Anna Rogers proposes a new rule for this kind of research: “That which is not open and reasonably reproducible cannot be considered a requisite baseline.” # 3rd April 2023, 7:57 pm
AI photo sorter (via) Really interesting implementation of machine learning photo classification by Alexander Visheratin. This tool lets you select as many photos as you like from your own machine, then provides a web interface for classifying them into labels that you provide. It loads a 102MB quantized CLIP model and executes it in the browser using WebAssembly. Once classified, a “Generate script” button produces a copyable list of shell commands for moving your images into corresponding folders on your own machine. Your photos never get uploaded to a server—everything happens directly in your browser. # 2nd April 2023, 4:27 am