Simon Willison’s Weblog

32 items tagged “nginx”

Running gunicorn behind nginx on Heroku for buffering and logging

Heroku’s default setup for Django uses the gunicorn application server. Each Heroku dyno can only run a limited number of gunicorn workers, which means a limited number of requests can be served in parallel (around 4 per dyno is a good rule of thumb).

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What exactly the error meaning client closed prematurely connection while sending to client from upstream in nginx?

I think it means that the connection to the user’s browser was lost before the request had been fully transferred—for example due to the user hitting the stop button in their browser or switching off their wifi connection.

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How can I determine which web server a particular website is using (Apache, IIS, Nginx, etc)?

If you’re on Linux or OS X, use curl with the -I option (to make a HEAD request and see the HTTP headers):

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What are the advantages of running Apache behind nginx as opposed to just Apache by itself?

I do this for all of my Django stuff—I have Django running on modwsgi on a stripped down Apache (almost no configuration except for the modwsgi stuff), then I put an nginx on port 80 which serves the static files directly and proxies dynamic requests back to Apache.

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Multi-node: Concurrent NodeJS HTTP Server. Kris Zyp’s library for spawning multiple Node child processes (one per core is suggested) for concurrent request handling, taking advantage of Node’s child_process module. This alleviates the need to run multiple Node instances behind an nginx load balancer in order to take advantage of multiple cores. # 15th July 2010, 8:22 am

Introduction to nginx.conf scripting. Slideshow—hit left arrow to navigate through the slides. The nginx community is officially nuts. Starts out with a simple “Hello world” using the echo module, then rapidly descends down the rabbit hole in to array operations, sub-requests, memcached connection pooling and eventually non-blocking Drizzle SQL execution against a sharded cluster—all implemented in the nginx.conf configuration file. # 21st April 2010, 11:40 pm

jacobian’s django-deployment-workshop. Notes and resources from Jacob’s 3 hour Django deployment workshop at PyCon, including example configuration files for Apache2 + mod_wsgi, nginx, PostgreSQL and pgpool. # 19th February 2010, 2:28 pm

Round-robin Django setup with nginx. An nginx trick I didn’t know: a low proxy_connect_timeout value (e.g. 2 seconds) combined with the proxy_next_upstream setting means that if one of your backends breaks a user won’t even see an error, they’ll just have a short delay before getting a response from a working server. # 21st December 2009, 3:43 pm

Simple CouchDB multi-master clustering via Nginx. An impressive combination. CouchDB can be easily set up in a multi-master configuration, where writes to one master are replicated to the other and vice versa. This makes setting up a reliable CouchDB cluster is as simple as putting two such servers behind a single nginx proxy. # 19th November 2009, 4:37 pm

How We Made GitHub Fast. Detailed overview of the new GitHub architecture. It’s a lot more complicated than I would have expected—lots of moving parts are involved in ensuring they can scale horizontally when they need to. Interesting components include nginx, Unicorn, Rails, DRBD, HAProxy, Redis, Erlang, memcached, SSH, git and a bunch of interesting new open source projects produced by the GitHub team such as BERT/Ernie and ProxyMachine. # 21st October 2009, 9:14 pm

nginx_http_push_module. More clever design with webhooks—here’s an nginx module that provides a comet endpoint URL which will hang until a back end process POSTs to another URL on the same server. This makes it much easier to build asynchronous comet apps using regular synchronous web frameworks such as Django, PHP and Rails. # 17th October 2009, 4:48 pm

Ravelry. Tim Bray interviews Casey Forbes, the single engineer behind Ravelry, the knitting community that serves 10 million Rails requests a day using just seven physical servers, MySQL, Sphinx, memcached, nginx, haproxy, passenger and Tokyo Cabinet. # 3rd September 2009, 6:50 pm

Phusion Passenger for nginx. Passenger (aka mod_rails / mod_rack) enables easy deployment of Rails and Ruby apps under Apache... and the latest version adds support for nginx as well. It works as an HTTP proxy and process manager, spawning worker processes and forwarding HTTP requests to them via a request queue. It can also handle Python WSGI applications—anyone tried it out for that yet? # 20th April 2009, 4:53 am

Paul Buchheit: Make your site faster and cheaper to operate in one easy step. Paul promotes gzip encoding using nginx as a proxy, and mentions that FriendFeed use a “custom, epoll-based python server” as their application server. Does that mean that they’re serving their real-time comet feeds directly from Python? # 17th April 2009, 5:19 pm

How to use Django with Apache and mod_wsgi. My favourite deployment option is now included in the official Django docs, thanks to Alex Gaynor. I tend to run a stripped down Apache with mod_wsgi behind an nginx proxy, and have nginx serve static files directly. This avoids the need for a completely separate media server (although a separate media domain is still a good idea for better client-side performance). # 1st April 2009, 12:24 am

Future roadmap for mod_wsgi. mod_wsgi 3.0 isn’t too far off, and will include Python 3.0 support, WSGI application preloading and internal web server redirection (similar to nginx X-Accel-Redirect). Version 4.0 plans a major architectural change that will allow multiple versions of Python to be run from the same Apache. # 19th March 2009, 5:27 pm

The Django and Ubuntu Intrepid Almanac. Will Larson’s impressively comprehensive guide to configuring and securing an Ubuntu VPS from scratch to run Django, using PostgreSQL and Apache/mod_wsgi behind nginx. # 14th February 2009, 3:42 pm

Minimal nginx conf to split get/post requests. Interesting idea for master-slave replication balancing where GET v.s. POST is load-balanced by nginx, presumably to different backend servers that are configured to talk to either a slave or a master. This won’t deal very will with replication lag though—you really want a user’s session to be bound to the master server for the next few GET requests after data is modified to ensure they see the effects of their updates. UPDATE: Amit fixed my complaint with a neat hack based around a cookie with a max age of 10 seconds. # 14th October 2008, 4:33 pm

ncache. A squid-style caching system built on top of nginx. Supports the HTTP PURGE method for cache invalidation. # 18th June 2008, 8:09 pm

Load Balancer Update. WordPress.com has switched from Pound to nginx for load balancing, resulting in a significant drop in CPU usage. I’ve been using nginx on my little VPS for over a year now with no complaints, nice to know it scales up as well as down. # 1st May 2008, 10:06 am

Nginx and Memcached, a 400% boost! Ilya Grigorik wrote up my current favourite nginx trick—you set nginx to check memcached for a cache entry matching the current URL on every hit, then invalidate your cache by pushing a new cache record straight in to memcached from your application server. # 11th February 2008, 10:05 pm

NginxMemcachedModule. nginx can be set up to directly serve a URL from memcache if the corresponding cache key is set, and fall back to a backend application server otherwise. Application servers can then write directly to memcache when content needs to be cached or goes stale. # 15th December 2007, 1:59 am

A Fair Proxy Balancer for Nginx and Mongrel. nginx uses round robin for proxying by default; this extension module ensures requests are queued up and sent through to backend mongrel servers that aren’t currently busy. I don’t see any reason this wouldn’t work with servers other than mongrel. # 9th December 2007, 2:57 pm

mod_proxy_balancer gets a thumbs up. Chris Miles explains mod_proxy_balance’s hot spare feature. nginx doesn’t appear to support this, unless I’ve missed something in the documentation. # 20th July 2007, 5:44 pm

Just what web server should be sitting in front of my Rails application? Includes some interesting notes about Varnish, PHK’s high performance, highly configurable front-end caching server (essentially a much more modern version of Squid). # 17th July 2007, 1:29 pm

Emiller’s Balls-Out Guide to Nginx Module Development. Extremely detailed guide to extending the nginx Web server using C. # 29th May 2007, 7:38 pm

oxfordgeeks.net

Nat and I had a bit of a mini-hackday this bank holiday Monday. Nat’s been doing a great job summoning local geeks out of the woodwork with Oxford Geek Nights event, but it’s still pretty hard to find other interesting events in the Oxfordshire area. It’s not that there aren’t any, it’s just that the geek community in Oxford is currently pretty fragmented.

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Quick Django Benching. Django under Apache/mod_python outperforms nginx/FastCGI and LightTPD/FastCGI once you ramp up the concurrency levels. My setup for this site (Apache/mod_python behind an nginx proxy, with nginx handling static files) should give the best of both worlds. # 17th February 2007, 4:56 pm

Content delivery system design mistakes. Collection of tips for optimising Web server performance. Mentions lighttpd/nginx, Keep-Alive, expires headers, noatime and more. # 15th February 2007, 11 am

Nginx vs. Lighttpd for a small VPS. My VPS is still running nginx with no problems at all. # 10th January 2007, 11:31 am