Simon Willison’s Weblog


Optimizing SQLite for servers (via) Sylvain Kerkour’s comprehensive set of lessons learned running SQLite for server-based applications.

There’s a lot of useful stuff in here, including detailed coverage of the different recommended PRAGMA settings.

There was also a tip I haven’t seen before about “BEGIN IMMEDIATE” transactions:

“By default, SQLite starts transactions in DEFERRED mode: they are considered read only. They are upgraded to a write transaction that requires a database lock in-flight, when query containing a write/update/delete statement is issued.

The problem is that by upgrading a transaction after it has started, SQLite will immediately return a SQLITE_BUSY error without respecting the busy_timeout previously mentioned, if the database is already locked by another connection.

This is why you should start your transactions with BEGIN IMMEDIATE instead of only BEGIN. If the database is locked when the transaction starts, SQLite will respect busy_timeout.”