# Chapter 27 Quantum Physics Need for Quantum Physics

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Chapter 27 Quantum Physics

Need for Quantum Physics n n Problems remained from classical mechanics that relativity didn’t explain Blackbody Radiation n n Photoelectric Effect n n The electromagnetic radiation emitted by a heated object Emission of electrons by an illuminated metal Spectral Lines n Emission of sharp spectral lines by gas atoms in an electric discharge tube

Development of Quantum Physics n 1900 to 1930 n Development of ideas of quantum mechanics n n n Also called wave mechanics Highly successful in explaining the behavior of atoms, molecules, and nuclei Involved a large number of physicists n n Planck introduced basic ideas Mathematical developments and interpretations involved such people as Einstein, Bohr, Schrödinger, de Broglie, Heisenberg, Born and Dirac

Blackbody Radiation n An object at any temperature emits electromagnetic radiation n Sometimes called thermal radiation Stefan’s Law describes the total power radiated The spectrum of the radiation depends on the temperature and properties of the object

Blackbody Radiation Graph n n Experimental data for distribution of energy in blackbody radiation As the temperature increases, the total amount of energy increases n n Shown by the area under the curve As the temperature increases, the peak of the distribution shifts to shorter wavelengths

Wien’s Displacement Law n The wavelength of the peak of the blackbody distribution was found to follow Wein’s Displacement Law n max T = 0. 2898 x 10 -2 m • K n n max is the wavelength at which the curve’s peak T is the absolute temperature of the object emitting the radiation

The Ultraviolet Catastrophe n n n Classical theory did not match the experimental data At long wavelengths, the match is good At short wavelengths, classical theory predicted infinite energy At short wavelengths, experiment showed no energy This contradiction is called the ultraviolet catastrophe

Planck’s Resolution n Planck hypothesized that the blackbody radiation was produced by resonators n n Resonators were submicroscopic charged oscillators The resonators could only have discrete energies n En = n h ƒ n n n is called the quantum number ƒ is the frequency of vibration h is Planck’s constant, 6. 626 x 10 -34 J s Key point is quantized energy states

Max Planck n n n 1858 – 1947 Introduced a “quantum of action, ” h Awarded Nobel Prize in 1918 for discovering the quantized nature of energy

Photoelectric Effect n When light is incident on certain metallic surfaces, electrons are emitted from the surface n n This is called the photoelectric effect The emitted electrons are called photoelectrons The effect was first discovered by Hertz The successful explanation of the effect was given by Einstein in 1905 n Received Nobel Prize in 1921 for paper on electromagnetic radiation, of which the photoelectric effect was a part

Photoelectric Effect Schematic n n n When light strikes E, photoelectrons are emitted Electrons collected at C and passing through the ammeter are a current in the circuit C is maintained at a positive potential by the power supply

Photoelectric Current/Voltage Graph n n The current increases with intensity, but reaches a saturation level for large V’s No current flows for voltages less than or equal to – Vs, the stopping potential n The stopping potential is independent of the radiation intensity

More About Photoelectric Effect n n The stopping potential is independent of the radiation intensity The maximum kinetic energy of the photoelectrons is related to the stopping potential: KEmax = e Vs

Features Not Explained by Classical Physics/Wave Theory n n No electrons are emitted if the incident light frequency is below some cutoff frequency that is characteristic of the material being illuminated The maximum kinetic energy of the photoelectrons is independent of the light intensity

More Features Not Explained n n The maximum kinetic energy of the photoelectrons increases with increasing light frequency Electrons are emitted from the surface almost instantaneously, even at low intensities

Einstein’s Explanation n A tiny packet of light energy, called a photon, would be emitted when a quantized oscillator jumped from one energy level to the next lower one n n n Extended Planck’s idea of quantization to electromagnetic radiation The photon’s energy would be E = hƒ Each photon can give all its energy to an electron in the metal The maximum kinetic energy of the liberated photoelectron is KEmax = hƒ – is called the work function of the metal

Explanation of Classical “Problems” n The effect is not observed below a certain cutoff frequency since the photon energy must be greater than or equal to the work function n n Without this, electrons are not emitted, regardless of the intensity of the light The maximum KE depends only on the frequency and the work function, not on the intensity

More Explanations n n The maximum KE increases with increasing frequency The effect is instantaneous since there is a one-to-one interaction between the photon and the electron

Verification of Einstein’s Theory n n Experimental observations of a linear relationship between KE and frequency confirm Einstein’s theory The x-intercept is the cutoff frequency

Cutoff Wavelength n n The cutoff wavelength is related to the work function Wavelengths greater than C incident on a material with a work function f don’t result in the emission of photoelectrons

Photocells n n n Photocells are an application of the photoelectric effect When light of sufficiently high frequency falls on the cell, a current is produced Examples n Streetlights, garage door openers, elevators

X-Rays n Electromagnetic radiation with short wavelengths n n Wavelengths less than for ultraviolet Wavelengths are typically about 0. 1 nm X-rays have the ability to penetrate most materials with relative ease Discovered and named by Roentgen in 1895

Production of X-rays, 1 n X-rays are produced when high-speed electrons are suddenly slowed down n n Can be caused by the electron striking a metal target A current in the filament causes electrons to be emitted These freed electrons are accelerated toward a dense metal target The target is held at a higher potential than the filament

X-ray Spectrum n n The x-ray spectrum has two distinct components Continuous broad spectrum n n n Depends on voltage applied to the tube Sometimes called bremsstrahlung The sharp, intense lines depend on the nature of the target material

Production of X-rays, 2 n n An electron passes near a target nucleus The electron is deflected from its path by its attraction to the nucleus n n This produces an acceleration It will emit electromagnetic radiation when it is accelerated

Wavelengths Produced n n If the electron loses all of its energy in the collision, the initial energy of the electron is completely transformed into a photon The wavelength can be found from

Wavelengths Produced, cont n Not all radiation produced is at this wavelength n n Many electrons undergo more than one collision before being stopped This results in the continuous spectrum produced

Diffraction of X-rays by Crystals n n For diffraction to occur, the spacing between the lines must be approximately equal to the wavelength of the radiation to be measured The regular array of atoms in a crystal can act as a three-dimensional grating for diffracting X-rays

Schematic for X-ray Diffraction n n A beam of X-rays with a continuous range of wavelengths is incident on the crystal The diffracted radiation is very intense in certain directions n n These directions correspond to constructive interference from waves reflected from the layers of the crystal The diffraction pattern is detected by photographic film

Photo of X-ray Diffraction Pattern n n The array of spots is called a Laue pattern The crystal structure is determined by analyzing the positions and intensities of the various spots

Bragg’s Law n n n The beam reflected from the lower surface travels farther than the one reflected from the upper surface If the path difference equals some integral multiple of the wavelength, constructive interference occurs Bragg’s Law gives the conditions for constructive interference n 2 d sin = m , m = 1, 2, 3…

Arthur Holly Compton n n 1892 – 1962 Discovered the Compton effect Worked with cosmic rays Director of the lab at U of Chicago Shared Nobel Prize in 1927

The Compton Effect n n Compton directed a beam of x-rays toward a block of graphite He found that the scattered x-rays had a slightly longer wavelength that the incident x-rays n n n This means they also had less energy The amount of energy reduction depended on the angle at which the xrays were scattered The change in wavelength is called the Compton shift

Compton Scattering n n n Compton assumed the photons acted like other particles in collisions Energy and momentum were conserved The shift in wavelength is

Compton Scattering, final n The quantity h/mec is called the Compton wavelength n n Compton wavelength = 0. 002 43 nm Very small compared to visible light The Compton shift depends on the scattering angle and not on the wavelength Experiments confirm the results of Compton scattering and strongly support the photon concept

Photons and Electromagnetic Waves n Light has a dual nature. It exhibits both wave and particle characteristics n n n The photoelectric effect and Compton scattering offer evidence for the particle nature of light n n Applies to all electromagnetic radiation Different frequencies allow one or the other characteristic to be more easily observed When light and matter interact, light behaves as if it were composed of particles Interference and diffraction offer evidence of the wave nature of light

Louis de Broglie n n n 1892 – 1987 Discovered the wave nature of electrons Awarded Nobel Prize in 1929

Wave Properties of Particles n n In 1924, Louis de Broglie postulated that because photons have wave and particle characteristics, perhaps all forms of matter have both properties Furthermore, the frequency and wavelength of matter waves can be determined

de Broglie Wavelength and Frequency n n The de Broglie wavelength of a particle is The frequency of matter waves is

Dual Nature of Matter n n The de Broglie equations show the dual nature of matter Each contains matter concepts n n Energy and momentum Each contains wave concepts n Wavelength and frequency

The Davisson-Germer Experiment n n n They scattered low-energy electrons from a nickel target They followed this with extensive diffraction measurements from various materials The wavelength of the electrons calculated from the diffraction data agreed with the expected de Broglie wavelength This confirmed the wave nature of electrons Other experimenters have confirmed the wave nature of other particles

The Electron Microscope n n n The electron microscope depends on the wave characteristics of electrons Microscopes can only resolve details that are slightly smaller than the wavelength of the radiation used to illuminate the object The electrons can be accelerated to high energies and have small wavelengths

Erwin Schrödinger n n n 1887 – 1961 Best known as the creator of wave mechanics Worked on problems in general relativity, cosmology, and the application of quantum mechanics to biology

The Wave Function n In 1926 Schrödinger proposed a wave equation that describes the manner in which matter waves change in space and time Schrödinger’s wave equation is a key element in quantum mechanics Schrödinger’s wave equation is generally solved for the wave function,

The Wave Function, cont n n The wave function depends on the particle’s position and the time The value of 2 at some location at a given time is proportional to the probability of finding the particle at that location at that time

Werner Heisenberg n n 1901 – 1976 Developed an abstract mathematical model to explain wavelengths of spectral lines n n Called matrix mechanics Other contributions n Uncertainty Principle n n n Nobel Prize in 1932 Atomic and nuclear models Forms of molecular hydrogen

The Uncertainty Principle n When measurements are made, the experimenter is always faced with experimental uncertainties in the measurements n n Classical mechanics offers no fundamental barrier to ultimate refinements in measurements Classical mechanics would allow for measurements with arbitrarily small uncertainties

The Uncertainty Principle, 2 n n Quantum mechanics predicts that a barrier to measurements with ultimately small uncertainties does exist In 1927 Heisenberg introduced the uncertainty principle n If a measurement of position of a particle is made with precision x and a simultaneous measurement of linear momentum is made with precision px, then the product of the two uncertainties can never be smaller than h/4

The Uncertainty Principle, 3 n n n Mathematically, It is physically impossible to measure simultaneously the exact position and the exact linear momentum of a particle Another form of the principle deals with energy and time:

Thought Experiment – the Uncertainty Principle n n A thought experiment for viewing an electron with a powerful microscope In order to see the electron, at least one photon must bounce off it During this interaction, momentum is transferred from the photon to the electron Therefore, the light that allows you to accurately locate the electron changes the momentum of the electron

Uncertainty Principle Applied to an Electron n View the electron as a particle Its position and velocity cannot both be know precisely at the same time Its energy can be uncertain for a period given by t = h / (4 E)

Microscope Resolutions n In ordinary microscopes, the resolution is limited by the wavelength of the waves used to make the image n n Optical, resolution is about 200 nm Electron, resolution is about 0. 2 nm n n Need high energy Would penetrate the target, so not give surface details

Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) n n n Allows highly detailed images with resolution comparable to the size of a single atom A conducting probe with a sharp tip is brought near the surface The electrons can “tunnel” across the barrier of empty space

Scanning Tunneling Microscope, cont n n n By applying a voltage between the surface and the tip, the electrons can be made to tunnel preferentially from surface to tip The tip samples the distribution of electrons just above the surface The STM is very sensitive to the distance between the surface and the tip n Allows measurements of the height of surface features within 0. 001 nm

STM Result, Example n n n This is a “quantum corral” of 48 iron atoms on a copper surface The diameter of the ring is 143 nm Obtained with a low temperature STM

Limitation of the STM n There is a serious limitation to the STM since it depends on the conductivity of the surface and the tip n n Most materials are not conductive at their surface An atomic force microscope has been developed that overcomes this limitation It measures the force between the tip and the sample surface Has comparable sensitivity